What is a Database? Definition, Types and Components – Edureka

Data is information and to organize this data, you need a database. This article on What is a database will help you understand the definition, the different types, their advantages and disadvantages.


following topics are covered:

What is data? What is a database? Database components

  • Data about the database
  • What

  • are the types
  • of

  • databases
  • ? Database Management System

  • (DBMS)
  • What is

  • SQL
  • ?
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages

So, let’s get started!

What is data?

Data is a collection of a different unit of information. This “data” is used in a variety of text forms, numbers, media, and many more. Speaking in terms of computing. Data is basically information that can be translated into a particular form for efficient movement and processing.

Example: Name, age, weight, height, etc.

Now, let’s move on to the next topic and understand what a database is.

What is a database?

Database- What is a Database-EdurekaThe database is an organized collection of data structured to make it easily accessible, manageable and updated. In simple words, you can say, a database in a place where data is stored. The best analogy is the library. The library contains a huge collection of books of different genres, here the library is database and the books are the data.

In simple terms, consider your school’s registration. All student data is entered into a single file. You get the details about the students in this file. This is called a database where any student’s information can be accessed.

Data on

the database: Databases

  • have evolved dramatically since their inception in the early 1960s
  • . Some navigation databases, such as the

  • hierarchical database and the network database, were the original systems used to store and manipulate data. Although these early systems were actually inflexible
  • in the early 1980s, relational databases became very popular, which were followed by object-oriented databases later
  • .

  • More recently, NoSQL databases emerged as a response to the growth of the Internet and the need for faster speed and processing of unstructured data.
  • Today, we have cloud databases and autonomous databases that are creating new ground when it comes to how data is collected, stored, managed, and used.

Note: Data is interchangeable.

Let’s see how to create a database.

How to create a database?

We use the CREATE DATABASE statement to create a new database.


CREATE DATABASE databasename;


CREATE SCHOOL DATABASE This will create the database

with the name School


That’s how simple you can create

a database. Database components

The main components of the database are:

  • Hardware

This consists of a set of physical electronic devices, such as I/O devices, storage devices, and many more. It also provides an interface between computers and real-world systems.

  • Software

This is the set of programs that are used to control and manage the overall database. It also includes the DBMS software itself. The operating system, the network software that is used to share the data between users, the application programs used to access the data in the DBMS.

  • The


database management system collects, stores, processes and accesses data. The database contains both actual or operational data and metadata.

  • Procedure

These are the rules and instructions on how to use the database to design and run the DBMS, to guide the users who operate and manage it


  • Database access language

Used to access data to and from the database. To enter new data, updating or recovering requires database data. You can write a set of appropriate commands in the database access language, send them to the DBMS, which then processes the data and generates it, displays a set of results in a user-readable format.

Now that you have understood how to create a database, let’s go ahead and understand the types.

What are the types of databases

? There are some types that are very important and popular.

Relational database

  • Object-oriented
  • database Distributed database

  • NoSQL database Graphical
  • database Cloud database

  • Centralization
  • of databases

  • Operational
  • database

These are the main types of databases available. Now, let’s move on to the next topic.

Database Management System (DBMS)A database management system



software that is used to manage the database. It receives instructions from a database administrator (DBA) and accordingly instructs the system to make the appropriate changes. These commands are used to load, retrieve, or modify existing system data.

A database

typically requires a complete database software program known as a database management system (DBMS). A DBMS basically serves as an interface between the database and its end users or programs, allowing users to retrieve, update, and manage how information is organized and optimized. A DBMS also facilitates monitoring and control of databases, enabling a variety of administrative operations, such as performance monitoring, tuning, and backup and recovery.

What is SQL?


SQL structured query language is pronounced as “S-Q-L” or sometimes as “See-Quel”, which is the standard language for dealing with relational databases. You can even query the details of relational databases, functions, queries, variables, etc. with Microsoft SQL certification.

It is effectively used to insert, search, update, delete, modify database records. It doesn’t mean SQL can’t do things beyond that. In fact, it can also do many more things. SQL is regularly used not only by database administrators, but also by developers to write data integration scripts and data analysts.

Now that you have understood what SQL is, let’s go ahead and understand the advantages of using the database



  • Reduced data redundancy
  • .

  • In addition, update errors are reduced and consistency is increased
  • . Easier data integrity of application programs.

  • Improved access to user data through the use of host and query languages
  • .

  • Data security is also improved
  • .

  • Reduced data entry, storage and retrieval costs
  • .


Complexity: Databases

  • are complex systems of hardware and software
  • .

  • Cost: Requires significant initial and ongoing financial resources
  • . Security:

  • Most leading companies need to know that their database systems can securely store data, including sensitive employee and customer information
  • .

  • Compatibility: There is a risk that a DBMS will not support the operational requirements of a company.

With this, we come to the end of this article on “What is a database”. I hope you enjoyed reading it.

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